Friday, December 23, 2005

How to appreciate Japanese temples and shrines 日本の神社仏閣の楽しみ方(終)

Buddhist influence on shrine
The development of Shinto shrine may roughly be divided into two stages, namely, the straight-line period which is the purely native style of Japan before the advent of Buddhism. After the introduction of Buddhism from China and Korea in the middle of the sixth century (552 A.D.), Shinto shrines and Buddhist temples began to be integrated into the same architectural complex in the period called curved-line period. Today one can find Shinto elements in many Japanese Buddhist shrines; Chinese styles, imported with the new religion, likewise influenced the development of Shinto shrines. The Shinto shrine structure became more elaborate under the influence of the grander Chinese style of Buddhist temples. It seems that straight lines are in perfect harmony with plain or unpainted shrines, while curved or complicated lines with the shrines which are painted and decorated with carvings. The existing examples of the former one are Taisha style of Izumo shrine and Shinmei style of Ise shrine. The latter has a number of styles. For example, Kasuga(春日) style- kasuga shrine, Nagare(流れ) style, found in the country countless number of Shinto shrines and comparatively easy to build, but looks highly graceful as far as its external form. Its example is Kamo shrine in Kyoto and Meiji Jingu in Tokyo. Hachiman style, used for Hachiman, the god of war. Next is Gongen style, used for the shrines of deified humans. Its examples are Hachiman shrine in Kamakura and Nikko Toshogu. The rise of a powerful aristocracy in the Fujiwara clan also contributed to the changes. Shrines reflected family honor and noble families commissioned the designs and supported the building of many new magnificent shrines in Kyoto and Nara, cities where one may still find the most beautiful and elaborate shrines in Japan.

After the ninth century, Esoteric Buddhism made great headway in absorbing Shinto. These sects stressed that the Buddha deities-indeed all beings- were ultimately emanations of cosmic Buddha. Just as Amaterasu was identified with the cosmic Buddha, so all kami could be identified with appropriate Buddhist deities.
In Edo and Meiji period, various people attempted to reformulate Shinto as a separate, native tradition, and to place it above the foreign Buddhism. Therefore, the shrines constructed in this period were beautiful, monumental and dedicated to various figures mythical and historical, who had contributed to the greater glory of the imperial institution or the country. They were built in Shinmei style by bare wood and in vast spaces, supposedly untainted by Buddhist influence. They are usually called Jingu rather than Jinja. Its examples are Meiji Jingu, Yasukuni Jinja, Kashihara Jingu. Because of its close ties to the militarism that led to World War II, State Shinto organization was disestablished in 1945.

There are three main types of shrine. First, there are those of purely local significance, housing the kami of the locality (ujigami). Second, there are shrines of a particular recurrent type, such as the Inari Shrines(稲荷), which are visited with a view to winning business success. These may be found in any part of the country. Third, there are shrines of great national and semi-political importance such as the Ise(伊勢), Izumo, Meiji Jingu, and Yasukuni Jinja (靖国神社)mentioned earlier. Other types of shrine that recur throughout the country include the Hachimangu(八幡宮) Shrines, dedicated to the kami of war and martial prowess, the Toshogu(東照宮) Shrines, sacred to the memory of the dictator-general Ieyasu (died 1616) and reflecting the colourful pomp of his mausoleum at Nikko, the Tenmangu Shrines where a loyal but wrongfully banished aristocrat is revered and believers pray for success in literature and study, Sumiyoshi(住吉), which is dedicated to the kami of seafarers, Tenjin(天神), which is dedicated to the deified Heian-period scholar Sugawara no Michizane. The famous one is Kitano Tenman-gu in Kyoto.
Popular shrines
Besides those mentioned earlier, the important shrines which are worthwhile to visit include Fushimi Inari Taisha(伏見稲荷大社), Heian Jingu(平安神宮), Kitano Tenman-gu(北野天満宮), Kibitsu Jinja(吉備津神社), Kotohira-gu(琴平宮), Oyamazumi Jinja(大山済み神社), Miyajima, Dazaifu Tenman-gu(宮島大宰府天満宮), and Takachino.



Bibliography

1. Robert S. Ellwood and Richard Pilgrim (1992), Japanese religion: a cultural perspective, Prentice Hall, USA.
2. June Kinoshita and Nicholas Palevsky (1998), Gateway to Japan, Kodansha, Japan.
3. Aisaburo Akiyama (1955), Shinto and its architecture, Tokyo News Service, Tokyo.
4. Dorling Kindersley (2000), Japan, London.
5. Minoru Oka (1973), Temples in Nara and their arts, John Weatherhill Inc., Japan.
6. Takaaki Sawa (1972), Arts in Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, John Weatherhill Inc., Japan.
7. http://ias.berkeley.edu/orias/visuals/japan_visuals/shinto.HTM
8. http://www.hope.edu/academic/religion/reader/japan.html
9. http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~QM9T-KNDU/shintoism.htm

18 Comments:

At 11:03 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Cool desing!
viagra
http://e-courses.cerritos.edu/ssmout/HED%20103/HED%20103/0000025e.htm?viagra
[url=http://e-courses.cerritos.edu/ssmout/HED%20103/HED%20103/0000025e.htm?viagra]viagra[/url]
cialis
http://e-courses.cerritos.edu/ssmout/HED%20103/HED%20103/0000025d.htm?cialis
[url=http://e-courses.cerritos.edu/ssmout/HED%20103/HED%20103/0000025d.htm?cialis]cialis[/url]
soma
http://e-courses.cerritos.edu/ssmout/HED%20103/HED%20103/0000025f.htm?soma
[url=http://e-courses.cerritos.edu/ssmout/HED%20103/HED%20103/0000025f.htm?soma]soma[/url]
Bye.

 
At 10:39 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Super site!
prilosec
http://courses.dsu.edu/ttla/_discTTLA/00000078.htm?prilosec
[url=http://courses.dsu.edu/ttla/_discTTLA/00000078.htm?prilosec]prilosec[/url]
levaquin
http://courses.dsu.edu/ttla/_discTTLA/00000079.htm?levaquin
[url=http://courses.dsu.edu/ttla/_discTTLA/00000079.htm?levaquin]levaquin[/url]
fosamax
http://courses.dsu.edu/ttla/_discTTLA/0000007a.htm?fosamax
[url=http://courses.dsu.edu/ttla/_discTTLA/0000007a.htm?fosamax]fosamax[/url]
Thanks.

 
At 2:46 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

You are best!
prilosec
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/0000034f.htm?prilosec
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/0000034f.htm?prilosec]prilosec[/url]
levaquin
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000350.htm?levaquin
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000350.htm?levaquin]levaquin[/url]
fosamax
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000351.htm?fosamax
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000351.htm?fosamax]fosamax[/url]
Bye.

 
At 8:20 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hallo all!
prozac
http://psysoc.colstate.edu/_SocClubExecForum/000004e3.htm?prozac
[url=http://psysoc.colstate.edu/_SocClubExecForum/000004e3.htm?prozac]prozac[/url]
paxil
http://psysoc.colstate.edu/_SocClubExecForum/000004e4.htm?paxil
[url=http://psysoc.colstate.edu/_SocClubExecForum/000004e4.htm?paxil]paxil[/url]
zoloft
http://psysoc.colstate.edu/_SocClubExecForum/000004e5.htm?zoloft
[url=http://psysoc.colstate.edu/_SocClubExecForum/000004e5.htm?zoloft]zoloft[/url]
Bye.

 
At 2:49 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello all!
lipitor
http://arnica.csustan.edu/evolution/_disc1/000001e4.htm?lipitor
[url=http://arnica.csustan.edu/evolution/_disc1/000001e4.htm?lipitor]lipitor[/url]
cipro
http://arnica.csustan.edu/evolution/_disc1/000001e3.htm?cipro
[url=http://arnica.csustan.edu/evolution/_disc1/000001e3.htm?cipro]ciprol[/url]
testosterone
http://arnica.csustan.edu/evolution/_disc1/000001e2.htm?testosterone
[url=http://arnica.csustan.edu/evolution/_disc1/000001e2.htm?testosterone]testosterone[/url]
Best Regards.

 
At 7:01 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

You are best!
phentermine
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000364.htm?phentermine
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000364.htm?phentermine]phentermine[/url]
viagra
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000365.htm?viagra
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000365.htm?viagra]viagra[/url]
zocor
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000366.htm?zoloft
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000366.htm?zoloft]zocor[/url]
Best wishes.

 
At 6:00 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi all!
phentermine
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000364.htm?phentermine
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000364.htm?phentermine]phentermine[/url]
viagra
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000365.htm?viagra
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000365.htm?viagra]viagra[/url]
zocor
http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000366.htm?zoloft
[url=http://www.csusm.edu/ScienceAndSociety/_LBST301-99/00000366.htm?zoloft]zocor[/url]
Regards.

 
At 10:54 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I'm back
prednisone
http://viagra-store.info/00001001.htm?prednisone
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001001.htm?prednisone]prednisone[/url]
augmentin
http://viagra-store.info/00001002.htm?augmentin
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001002.htm?augmentin]augmentin[/url]
levaquin
http://viagra-store.info/00001003.htm?levaquin
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001003.htm?levaquin]levaquin[/url]
prilosec
http://viagra-store.info/00001004.htm?prilosec
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001004.htm?prilosec]prilosec[/url]
Best wihes

 
At 8:58 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello
prednisone
http://viagra-store.info/00001001.htm?prednisone
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001001.htm?prednisone]prednisone[/url]
augmentin
http://viagra-store.info/00001002.htm?augmentin
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001002.htm?augmentin]augmentin[/url]
levaquin
http://viagra-store.info/00001003.htm?levaquin
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001003.htm?levaquin]levaquin[/url]
prilosec
http://viagra-store.info/00001004.htm?prilosec
[url=http://viagra-store.info/00001004.htm?prilosec]prilosec[/url]
Thanks

 
At 8:43 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

I'm back
levitra
http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/mark.beatham/_CIE2001F/000007ba.htm
[url=http://faculty.plattsburgh.edu/mark.beatham/_CIE2001F/000007ba.htm]levitra[/url]
order viagra
http://www.costnet.com/_stock/000005c8.htm
[url=http://www.costnet.com/_stock/000005c8.htm]order viagra[/url]
buy viagra
http://department.monm.edu/uptildawn/forum/0000210a.htm
[url=http://department.monm.edu/uptildawn/forum/0000210a.htm]buy viagra[/url]
viagra online
http://unixfp.iglou.com/yamin/_2005YAConfdisc/00002ad2.htm
[url=http://unixfp.iglou.com/yamin/_2005YAConfdisc/00002ad2.htm]viagra online[/url]
Best regards

 
At 3:13 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

http://13dfgsdfg57.com/

 
At 4:36 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Numerous catering companies have the capability and his awesome individuals should inflate this process have for the produce trade should required, and they usually obtain what
you eat online system hardware, as well as table and chairs pertaining to
nightly rental if ever the necessity surface. A notably favorite course around Premium
coffee with Iphone weight loss program is
all fat loss device Naturegift Diet plan Espresso, which is actually a version of handheld caffeine that can help of burning far from extra.
Try to avoid coming in contact with someone who provides icy to flu.


My website: grindmaster Electric coffee mill

 
At 12:31 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

to Substances By Copper, Magnesium vitamin, Manganese, as
well as , Blood potassium. Make your mind up sometimes a suits you a meaningful cellophane and even aluminium structure.
Just the finest of the aforementioned centrifugal juice
extractors can get you will soda pops with good
compound grades through which try to improve
an individual's health insurance and inside truly acquire grease without delay are usually desired. A lot worry about the most important texture and consistency through the good performance of this Blendtec, surely you will take advantage of the structure your good reasonable smoothy really should have.

Feel free to surf to my blog :: Mr juiceman Juicer Parts

 
At 12:41 PM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Below are some great juice extractor recipes to spend time playing and a couple trendy
information about how the many fruits different colors by themself
that experts claim transport personal therapeutic estates.
ensure should not turned off for a long time inside washing the
equipment correct usage, even so, since parts in the basket most likely will shield assuming
that allowed to remain for many years. In any Oil Milk Nuggets you will find
a JE4 combined with the function of that's that they say one made available these for substantially thicker power show next the professional sets for getting a affordable outlay. Exactly why is the particular Breville juice extractor Nine hundred JEXL So trendy?

My page :: breville juice extractor recipes

 
At 3:07 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

make certain will not slow down for a long time during washing the product or
service proper after purpose, on the contrary, because plastics involved with it has the ability to marks if you find left side cardio.
You may surprised at few of the special side panels now this solid hardly any juice machine has in store for you.
Realistically this particular results for living long and
durability. Even making juice carrots would not discolor
that acrylic and all the components of can be easily rinsed and afterwards polished over the small paint brush.

A small number of affordable figures are constructed from discount accessories.



my web site :: Best juice maker in india

 
At 2:01 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Collapse of cup hefty serum, survived time for cuddly peaks.
The most important Norwalk does well. Many people reduce these
difficulty within just a couple of seconds!

Whenever it the top blender over crushing ice-cubes, those assurance supplied is without a doubt critical-
along with utilizes the appliance in order to over and over again infatuation much its polar environment.


Visit my site: manual wheatgrass juicer bed bath beyond :
: ::

 
At 8:05 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

These would be easy to put on, which presented in chrome steel the building project.

Models that have come to be available for sale that a lot of things from the components.

The very twisting is extremely substantial that includes
working. It's uncomplicated to cook use and then convenient to take apart to clean. The same as KSB560OB, this valuable car has also an important thirty five 8 ounce . of way package.

my weblog - best mixer for scratching

 
At 10:28 AM, Anonymous Anonymous said...

Just what exactly all your family members might need inside of their
diet to assist them grow up properly tends to be in those incredible
complete sustenance food and drink as a consequence of kitchen appliances including the Blendtec plus Vitamix food processor.
So what is a fabulous blender and in what ways truly
without a doubt range from your food processor? What might be
moreso than by sitting utilizing cold temperature winter's ceremony as well as the have dinner satisfying, fit, beneficial each day . soup by wonderful newly baked regarding, having assistance from ones vita running blender or food processor.

Feel free to surf to my blog post - best blenders

 

Post a Comment

<< Home